#ProtectedAreas are *means* for achieving conservation *ends*! Means translate into ends if PAs are effective at abating threats & enhancing long-term resilience. Evaluations of PA effectiveness can focus on the *means*, on the *ends*, or on the *mechanisms* linking the two 2/12
Most analyses of #ProtectedArea effectiveness focus on the *means* of protection: extent of the network, management inputs, location.
Measuring extent is possible thanks to the World Database on Protected Areas 3/12
@unepwcmc @IWcpa https://livereport.protectedplanet.net/ 
Overall, we need #ProtectedAreas that are individually effective (well-designed, well-managed, strategically located) as well as well-connected, in sufficient extent & representative of biodiversity to add to an efficient global PA network -> the *means* for effectiveness 6/12
If *means* are adequate, the effectiveness of #ProtectedAreas should then become apparent by their effect at abating threats to biodiversity and at increasing the resilience of ecosystems to global change (locally & globally) -> the *mechanisms* for PA effectiveness 7/12
Ultimately, #ProtectedAreas only work if they are achieving conservation outcomes: locally in individual PAs; collectively by adding to global effects. Evaluating these *ends* is not easy; hence, few studies. 9/12
Previous analyses of #ProtectedArea effectiveness in terms of *ends* (=biodiversity outcomes) measure average local effects of individual sites. Holy Grail of assessing PA effectiveness: quantify the contribution of the overall PA network to global conservation outcomes. 11/12
I unwittingly created the hashtag #ProjectedAreas in the first tweet of this thread... 🙄
Which neatly summarises the key message of the thread: #ProjectedAreas are not enough; we need #ProtectedAreas!
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