The British and Afghan delegations that signed the Treaty of Gandamak 1879
From left to right the we have Mr Jenkyns, Major Cavagnari C.S.I, The Amir Yakub Khan, General Daod Shah, Habeebula Moustafi.

The treaty saw Afghanistan surrender the Khyber Pass, the Kurram Valley and meant a British mission, lead by Cavagnari, was established in Kabul.
The Amir had surrendered control of Afghanistan's foreign policy to the British. To impress upon Khan the might of the Empire the route to Gandamak was lined with 4750 men.
Sir Louis Cavagnari was a very interesting figure in British Imperial history, with his father being an Aristocratic Italian Bonapartist and his mother being Anglo-Irish. He was born in France in 1841 and after being educated in England joined the EICs 1st Bengal Fusiliers at 16
He served in the mutiny around Oudh and in 1861 joined the political department of the Indian Civil Service becoming an administrator along the Frontier. He quickly became a favourite of Lord Lytton which guaranteed him a prosperous career
Cavagnari was by all accounts a very competent diplomat and administrator who took great care and pride in his work but like Burnes before him he could be arrogant and naïve believing he would be able to outwit the Afghans. He did not and on the 3rd September 1879 was killed
The former Viceroy John Lawrence, who believed the best policy in Afghanistan was 'masterly inactivity' towards the Raj's neighbour was horrified by the outbreak of war in 1878. In fact upon hearing that Cavagnari would lead the mission at Kabul he said

"They will all be killed"
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