In ancient times the southern part of India was ruled principally by three main dynasties. They’re Pandyas, Cholas, Cheras. The Kings of these dynasties was collectively referred to as ‘Moovendhar’ (meaning, three crowned Kings).
@anexcommie @shreekanth2020 @HelloNNewman
Today, I’m gonna share with you what little information is available on internet on Pandyas – the oldest and tenacious of the three dynasties. I had to rely on internet bcos there’s still more to be explored about the Pandya dynasty.
@Valluva_Bharati @RajiIndustani
I was unable to cross-verify every detail and since their story is yet to be told, bringing them as is.

As per available information, Pandyas ruled parts of Southern India during three different periods of history (barring the pre-Sangam era) unlike the Cholas and Cheras.
These three periods are classified as ‘Sangam Era’, ‘First Empire’, ‘Second Empire’. It’s unknown as to when exactly the first empire of Pandyas was established, however the records about Pandya Kingdom in pre-Sangam era are mostly transmitted orally +
@Dharma_Yoddhaa @AnkitaBnsl
(their role in Kurushetra war) and does not have strong historical evidence to support.

Kulashekharan Pandya is the first known Pandyan King of the pre-Sangam era. He is said to be as strong as a bull. The name of the dynasty is derived from Tamil word ‘Pandi’, which means bull
This lends credence to Kulashekaran Pandya being the first known Pandya King and establisher of the dynasty. Another known King of this era is his son Malayadwaja Pandya. It is said that Malayadwaja Pandya fought in Kurushetra war alongside Pandavas.
@VedicWisdom1 @RapperPandit
He managed to wound Dronacharya in the war and goes on to duel with Ashwathama.

Meenakshi (a form of Maa Shakti), after whom the famous Meenakshi Amman temple is built in Madurai, is said to be daughter of Malayadwaja.

@rightwingchora @desi_thug1 @LevinaNeythiri
The Pandyas then resurface between c.600 BC – c.400 BC, this is known as the Sangam Era. Pandya Kings during this time were credited with construction of beautiful temples (Meenakshi Amman Temple, Nellaiappar Temple). Pandya kingdom was famous for their involvement in pearl +
+ trading, arts, poetry and literature. It is said that the Pandyas with their capital at present day Madurai established Sangam to grow the Tamil Literature. Thus, this period being known as ‘Sangam Era’. The Pandyas enjoyed diplomatic ties with the Roman republic and empire +
+ (apparently dating as far back as 550 BC, when Rome was still an occupied Etruscan kingdom), the Greeks, the Chinese, the Ptolemy Egyptians, etc. The Pandyan kingdom was also independent during the Mauryan rule of northern India and had friendly ties with them. @Sarvavyaapi
Marco Polo made mention of the Pandyan kingdom as one of the richest he had ever seen, as did Megasthenes in his work the Indika, and the Chinese traveller Yu Huan. The Sangam era came to an end when the Kalabhras takeover Pandya kingdom and push them to obscurity for 1100 years.
After almost 11 centuries of being a footnote in history, Kadungon Pandya retook the lost territories and established the Pandya Kingdom once again. This period is referred to as the First Empire of Pandyas. @hathyogi31 @Sanskritii_1 @Itishree001 @Anshulspiritual @sambhashan_in
This is a new era in the Tamil speaking region, as another King of Pallava dynasty (Simhavishnu) was achieving similar feat in establishing his kingdom. For re-establishing Pandya Kingdom, Kadungon Pandya was give epithet of ‘Pandyadhiraja’.

@Sankar2Narayan @rsankaras
Around 9th century, Chola army led by Aditya Karikala (son of Parantaka Chola II) defeats Vira Pandya in battle and dethroned the Pandyas. The Pandyas were replaced by Chola viceroys (Governors) called as Chola Pandyas.
@Bhairavinachiya @Padmaavathee @Man_Banarasiya
The mighty Pandya dynasty was reduced to being a vassal of Cholas. As one can imagine, it was quite humiliating for the Pandyas.

Jatavarman Kulasekharan I (1190-1216) resented his humbling position and lead a rebellion against the Cholas.
He’s quickly defeated and was forced to once again be vassal of Cholas.

Maravarman Sundara Pandyan I (1216-1236) - younger brother of Jatavarma Kulasekharan, avenged his brother’s defeat by sacking the Chola cities of Tanjavur and Uraiyur.
@NandiniVenkate3 @lalitha_jr
He briefly restores the Pandya fortune and even sends the crown Chola Prince – Raja Raja Chola III into exile. He ruled over extensive territories including that of Trichinopoly (present day Thiruchirappalli, Karur, Ariyalur and Perambalur) and Pudukottai.
This revival of fortune was short lived, as Rajendra Chola III defeats Maravarman Sundara Pandyan II (1238-1251).

Jatavarman Sundara Pandiyan III avenges defeat of his father (Maravarman Sundara Pandya II) by completely destroying the Chola empire.
He’s also credited for establishing the second powerful Pandyan empire. During his reign, he’s said to have acknowledged the contribution of other Kings from different dynasties towards the prosperity of the region.
@nair_hena @paperrose2k
It is said that he built a gate at the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam in which he engraves the names of all four great empires of Tamil Nadu – the Cholas, Pallavas, Pandyas and Cheras.
As per available information, the Pandya dynasty rule comes to an end in 1345 AD when General Malik Kafur of Delhi Sultanate invades Pandya kingdom and destroys it over the course of two decades.

Hope you enjoyed reading about one of the ancient kingdoms of India.
I’ll write a separate thread listing the names of Pandya Kings and their relative history (what little is available).

Have a great day and week ahead! @BesuraTaansane

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