On followers demand,we tweet Junagadh history today. Junagadh state last Babi Nawab fled Pakistan in 1947.Girinagar/Jirnadurg/Junagadh is very ancient city which is mentioned in Puranas. It was capital of Gujarat during Maurya & Gupta empires rule in Gujarat from 319 BC to 470 AD
In ancient time Girnar mountain was known as Urjayat & Raivatak.Ancient names of Junagadh were Giripur & Girinagar .It was capital of Gujarat.Around 945 AD 3rd Sorath king Rah Grahripu found ruins of fort & city of Girinagar in deep jungle of Girnar.He named it Jirnadurg-Junagadh
In 9th century Sorath king Versi Vala adopted his daughter's son Chandrachud Sama of Sindh & made him a successor.Chandrachud became Sorath king at Vanthali.Descendants Chandrachud Sama are Chudasama Rajputs.He was first Rah king of Sorath.His descendants were rulers of Junagadh.
In 1469 Chudasama Rajput dynasty rule over Junagadh-Sorath was ended with defeat of Ra'Mandlik 3rd.Chudasama ruled Sorath for 600 years-9th to 15th century.Gujarat Sultan Mahmud Begada conquered Junagadh & annexed Sorath to Gujarat Sultnat & Muslim rule over Junagadh-Sorath began
Gujarat Sultnat ruled Junagadh-Sorath from 1469 AD to 1572 AD. In 1572 AD, Mughal emperor Akbar won Gujarat & Junagadh-Sorath came under Mughal empire. Mughal military administrator of Sorath was known as Fauzdar who was under Mughal Suba (governor) of Gujarat at Ahmedabad.
In 1748 AD Nayab Fauzdar Sherkhan Babi was the Mughal administrator of Junagadh-Sorath. He declared himself the independent ruler of Junagadh by taking advantage of weakened Mughal power at Delhi. He founded the Babi Nawab state of Junagadh.His ancestor named Babi was an Afghan.
Babi Nawabs ruled Junagadh-Sorath from 1748 AD to 1947 AD. They were subordinate rulers of Maratha (1758 to 1818 AD) & British (1818-1947 AD. In 1947 AD, last Babi Nawab of Junagadh state Mahabat Khan 3rd decided to merge Junagadh into the newly formed Pakistan & fled there.
In 1758 Junagadh 1st Nawab Sherkhan (Bahadarkhan 1st) Babi died. He had 5 sons. Crown prince Mahabat Khan became Junagadh 2nd Nawab. Hia brother Sardar Muhammadkhan was at Balasinor (part of Junagadh state) at that time.He declared himself as an independent ruler of Balasinor.
9th & last Babi Nawab of Junagadh state,Mahabatkhan 3rd born to Nawab Rasulkhan & his 3rd Begum Ayesha Bibi at Junagadh on 2-8-1900.When he was 11 year,his father Nawab Rasulkhan died on 22-1-1911. As he was minor British government appointed H.D.Rendall (I.C.S.) as administrator
British regent H.D.Rendall (Ic.S.) ruled Junagadh state for 9 years. In his regency rule,he took actions against almost all top officials of previous Nawab Rasulkhan for corruption & accumulation of illegal wealth.When Mahabatkhan became major,he was given reign of state in 1920.
Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto was Zamindar of #Sindh & member of Bombay state council was appointed as Junagadh state Diwan on 30-5-1947.He worked as Indian Muslim League agent instead of works of Diwan.He controlled Nawab Mahabatkhan who was a simple kind gentleman & made him a puppet.
In 1947 Gujarat's Muslim princely states Palanpur,Radhanpur,Khambhat,Balasinor,Sachin,Bajana,Vanad,Dasada merged their states with India. Junagadh state administration & political advisers Abdalkadar & Khanbahadur Nabibaksh advised Nawab Mahabatkhan to merge Junagadh with India.
Junagadh state Diwan Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto (Pakistan PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Father & Benazir Bhutto grandfather) decided to merge Junagadh state with #Pakistan against advice of state advisers. He forced his decision on Nawab & kept him in palace. Nobody was allowed to meet him.
Hindu were 82% of population of Junagadh state & it was connected as inseparable part of India geographically.Rulers of other princely states advised Nawab but he was firm & backed his Diwan.Kathiawad Rajkiy Parishad sent Uchchharangrai Dhebar to meet Nawab but he was not allowed
On 15th August 1947, Junagadh state Nawab Mahabatkhan 3rd declared the accession of Junagadh state & its subordinate states Manavadar, Sardargadh, Bantva & Mangrol with newly formed country #Pakistan. Pajod Babi Darbar preferred to join with India.
People of Junagadh state frightened on declaration of Junagadh merger with Pakistan.There was no leader to lead them.All were thinking that state would be finished by Junagadh Nawab suicidal step. No constitutional remedy was available to prevent merger of Junagadh with Pakistan.
Junagadh state council met to approve Nawab's decision to merge Junagadh state with Pakistan.Only Hindu member of council Rai Bahadur Dharamdas Hirnandani protested this artificial,unreal & suicidal merger.He had to resign from council.He left Junagadh state secretly on 17-8-1947
Oldest member of Junagadh state council Rai Bahadur Shivdattrai Mankad resigned earlier from council on state merger with Pakistan.He sent Nawabs confident diplomat Captain Dr.Premrai Majmudar to Delhi for opinion of Indian national leaders.Both were banned to enter Nawab palace.
Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto's adviser Abdalkadar & political adviser Khan Bahadur Nabibax protested Junagadh state merger with Pakistan & advised to merge Junagadh with Indian Union. So Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto seized & sealed their bungalows & removed them from Junagadh state services.
Muhammad Zafarullah came from Karachi to Junagadh. He met Junagadh Nawab Mahabatkhan 3rd with Diwan Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto.'Jamaat-ul Muslimeen' of Junagadh became active under leaders Ismail Abredani, Kazi Muhammadminya & Muhammad Bajud to help Diwan Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto.
Junagadh Nawab was advised by his advisers including Diwan Bhutto that merger with India would be detrimental to his heritage, religion & status. Diwan Bhutto invited local leaders of state Taluka & towns to Junagadh for their opinion on Junagadh state merger with Pakistan.
Junagadh state Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto forced people leaders of state to approve merger of state with Pakistan but people leaders opposed this unreal merger of Junagadh with Pakistan. They under leader Dayashankar Dave gave memorandum of protest against state merger with Pakistan.
Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto called Hindu & Muslim officers of state & asked them to go villages & rural leaders & to get their signatures in support of Junagadh state merger with Pakistan. They denied to do so. Diwan tried to persuade senior Hindu officers but he could not succeed.
Junagadh Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto failed to get support of state people & officers for state merger with Pakistan.He felt that Nawab would change his decision of merger with Pakistan on public demand & his game plan would be failed. So he decided to send Nawab Mahabatkhan Karachi.
Diwan Bhutto persuaded Nawab to go Karachi under excuse to meet Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Nawab agreed. On 17th October 1947, Diwan Bhutto sent Nawab Mahabatkhan 3rd with wives, children, private secretaries, personal physicians & pet dogs to Karachi in aeroplane from Keshod airport.
Nawab's personal Hindu physicians Dr.Zaverilal Vasavda, Dr.Dilsukhrai Vasavda & dog veterinary doctor Kantilal Vyas went with Nawab to Karachi.They returned Junagadh after some time. Nawab was to return Junagadh within 3 days but he was not allowed to return by Karachi authority.
Junagadh Nawab was not allowed to return Junagadh from Karachi by Pakistan authority on advice of Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto.Nawab's personal belongings,jewellery,gold,silver & cash (45 Lakhs personal savings & 20 Lakhs from state treasury) were sent to Karachi by Diwan in few days.
A valuable jewelled gold waistband which was of Nawab's ancestor was sent to Nawab at Karachi through a trusted Muslim treasury officer of Junagadh state. Its value was Rs.12 Lakh in 1947.Diwan Sir Shahnawaz Bhutto became Junagadh state absolute ruler in absence of Junagadh Nawab
Junagadh state Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto tried to transfer Junagadh state treasury bonds & promissory notes to Nawab Mahabarkhan at Karachi but he could not succeed to transfer.Diwan made changes in state administration.He appointed & transferred Muslim officers on senior key posts.
After declaration of partition of India, large scale communal riots broke out in Sindh,Punjab & Bengal in month of August 1947. Lakhs of people were killed,women raped,properties looted & burnt on both sides.Junagadh Hindu population frightened by reading riot news in newspapers.
In August 1947, mass migration of Hindu population from Junagadh began. State authority started harassment & torture on Hindus who were leaving Junagadh.Police,custom & volunteers of 'Jamaat-ul Muslimeen' guarded railway station.They checked luggage of outgoing Hindu & looted it.
A secret Muslim council 'Action Council' was formed in Junagadh. It issued 'order of the day' under guidance of Muslim officers of Junagadh state daily to harass & terrorise Hindu population.State authority released hardcore Muslim criminals & gave them arms to frighten Hindu.
Unlawful activities of Junagadh state under Diwan Shahnawaz Bhutto resulted in serious implications in other parts of Saurashtra. Jamnagar state Jadeja ruler Jam Saheb Digvijaysinhji warned Junagadh state of dire consequences. From Karachi Nawab instructed Diwan to stop tyranny.
Mahatma Gandhi expressed his displeasure & exclamation on the unnatural merger of Junagadh state with Pakistan.He said in a public meeting that merger was not practical & against will of majority population.After Gandhiji's comment on merger,Indian govt. gave attention to matter.
Indian govt. was unable to provide immediate relief to people of Junagadh state. So Kathiawad Rajkiy Parishad held a meeting at Rajkot on 25-8-1947. Parishad leaders Amrutlal Sheth & Samaldas Gandhi formed A defence committee of Rasikbhai Parikh, Ratubhai Adani & Jethalal Joshi.
The Indian government had no legal right or power to interfere & prevent merger of Junagadh state with Pakistan.The only legal solution was people's revolution by citizens of Junagadh state & throw out the rule of Junagadh state government formed by Nawab at Karachi in Pakistan.
A huge meeting of Junagadh state citizens was held at Madhavbag in Mumbai on 25-9-1947.A revolutionary "Arzi Hakumat" government of Junagadh state was founded under Presidentship of renowned journalist & fine orator Samaldas Gandhi.He was a landlord of Kutiyana of Junagadh state.
A council of ministers of "Arzi Hakumat" of Junagadh state was formed under the Presidentship of Samaldas Gandhi. Ministers were Durlabhji Khetani, Bhavanishankar Oza, Narendrabhai Nathwani, Manilal Doshi, Suragbhai Varu & Smt.Pushpaben Mehta.
After the foundation of 'Arzi Hakumat', a war committee of Rasikbhai Parikh, Ratubhai Adani, Jethalal Joshi & Gokaldas Gaglani was formed to attack Junagadh state to free it from Nawab rule. Arzi army commander was Ratubhai Adani.
Junagadh state had an army of 107 lancers (cavalry),240 infantry soldiers & 1071 armed police personnel. Its officers had the experience of 2nd world war. State had Keshod airport & Veraval port. There was the possibility of arrival of Pakistani army through airport & seaport.
'Arzi Hakumat' army attacked Junagadh state. It seized 'Junagadh House' which was the property of Junagadh state at Rajkot on 30-9-1947. On Dashera festival Arzi army won Amarapar & Gadhadaka of Bhensan Mahal. Then it won & freed Navagadh & 34 villages of Babariawad Mahal.
Junagadh Diwan Shah Nawaz Bhutto tried hard to get help from Pakistan & its army but it never came. Diwan Shah Nawaz stored arms & ammunitions in Uparkot fort of Junagadh. He laid land mines on the main road from Rajkot to Junagadh near Vadal & Choki villages.
Junagadh state Diwan Shah Nawaz Bhutto eagerly waited for arrival of Pakistan army at Veraval port but it did not come.He sent Junagadh police commissioner Muhammad Hussainshah Naqvi to Karachi to get help of Pakistan army but no army came nor commissioner Naqvi returned back.
This tweet thread is to be continued.
You can follow @GujaratHistory.
Tip: mention @twtextapp on a Twitter thread with the keyword “unroll” to get a link to it.

Latest Threads Unrolled: