"anti-Blackness and other deeply held notions of race in precolonial and colonial Korea (1883-1945) were pivotal in how Koreans made sense of their vulnerability and, later, subjection to colonization...
and of their supposed 'temporary' backwardness on the path to civilization as well as independence. ...during the precolonial period (1883-1910), Koreans constructed imagined racial inferiors, especially Blacks and American Indians, without their corporeal presence,
and in doing so centrally shaped Korean racial identity from its beginning. ...under the militaristic rules (1910–1919) of the Japanese Empire, in contrast to the assumption that race was not significant in colonial Korea
due to racial akin-ness between the colonizer and the colonized, the Japanese colonial regime was forced to embrace the racial similarity discourse, risking their imagined superiority, and to criticize anti-Blackness in the United States
in order to establish the colonial legitimacy over the pro-U.S. sentiment of the colonized leading back to the precolonial period...Koreans’ anti-Blackness & racial hierarchy persisted as revealed, for instance, in the unnoticed racial subtext of the Declaration of Independence."
Antiblackness & korean racial formation before world war 2.