Everything you ever wanted to know about ‘Hind di Chaadar’ Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib. It is a long thread covering Guru Sahibs entire life

In this thread I will be talking about life of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji & the Shaheedi. I’ve used Bhai Nabh Singh & Santosh Singh’s work.
“Sa dharti bhayi haryavli, jithe mera Satguru baitha aaye
Se jant bhaye haryavle, jinhe mera satgur dekhya jaaye,
Dhan dhan pita, dhan dhan kul,
Dhan dhan So jannani Jin Guru janya maaye”

SGGS is full of praise for land & parents who gave birth to Guru.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was born in ‘Guru Ka Chak’ or ‘Chak Guru Ka’ or ‘Sualasar’ which is present day Amritsar.

The land has special praise in SGGS as
“Dithe sabhe thaav nahi tud jeha”

Guru Sahib was born on 16th April 1621 to Sahib Sri Hargobind Sahib & Mata Nanki ji.
It is said that Guru Hargobind Sahib were listening to ‘Asa di vaar’ at Amrit vela in Harmandar Sahib when sewadar came from ‘Guru ke Mahal’ with the news of birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib.
Guru Tegh Bahadur was the 6th child of Guru Hargobind Sahib & the fifth son.
1. Baba Gurditta Ji was the eldest.
2. Baba Atal Rai Ji.
3. Baba Ani Rai ji.
4. Baba Suraj Mal ji.
5. Bibi Vero ji. were the siblings of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib ji.

Guru Hargobind Sahib ji went to see his new born child with Baba Budha ji, Bhai Gurdas Ji & Bhai Bidi Chand ji
Dr. Santokh Singh writes that Guru Sahib did bow for the child much to the surprise of Bhai Gurdas ji & others. Bidi Chand ji asked the reason to which Guru Sahib replied,

“Deen Rakshak, Sankat harey, yeh hi sada pehchaan”

Guru Sahib had foreseen the life of his child.
Some scholars also write that Guru was named as ‘Tyag Mal’ but that is not true & is a distortion of the facts.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib was tutored by 114yr old Baba Budda ji about Gurmat for about 6yrs.

In a remarkable & noted incident of Guru Sahib’s childhood, it is said
that Guru Sahib gave all his precious clothes & robes to a naked child during the marriage of his elder brother Baba Gurditta ji.

In another incident which is famous for Baba Atal Rai ji. It is said that Baba Atal Rai ji was playing hide & seek with Mohan (a child).
Mohan was bitten by snake & never went back to look for hiding Baba Atal Rai ji. Baba Ji after waiting for whole day went to his home & told his mother to wake Mohan up because he did not complete the game. The mother kept on crying & told baba ji that her son is dead.
Baba ji then woke Mohan up with his stick which surprised everyone.
When Guru Hargobind Sahib got to know about it, he did not like it & told Baba Atal Rai Sahib to not go against the will of Akal Purakh. Baba Ji felt extreme remorse on his act & left home.
Baba Atal Rai Sahib left for heavenly abode at his meditation place where gurudwara Baba Atal Rai stands tall today.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib ji spent most of his day in meditation & evenings for horse riding. He is known as ‘Japi, Tapi’ and true observer of Simran & shahadat.
Bhai Nand Lal ji wrote about Guru Sahib that Guru’s Knowledge is beyond stars & oceans & with his ‘Jap’ Of Akal Purakh he rules end to end.

“Dhar libasey bandagi shahi turast
Daulat-e-azma te mahi turast”
Guru Tegh Bahadur accompanied his father to Kartarpur & there he got married to Bhai Lal Chand’s daughter Mata Gujri ji. From there, they went to Keeratpur Sahib together.

At Keeratpur Sahib it was decided that ‘Guru ki gadi’ will be given to Guru Har Rai Sahib ji.
Guru Har Rai Sahib ji was son of Baba Gurdita ji.

Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib went to Bakala to stay with a devout Sikh who had served Guru Hargobind Sahib, his name was Bhai Mehr ji. Guru Sahib with his mother & Mata Nanki ji stayed at Bakala spending time in meditation.
Meanwhile in Delhi, Guru Ki Gadi had been passed on to Guru Harikrishn Ji. Diwan Darga Mal came to Delhi & asked Guru about next successor while Guru Harkrishan Sahib was under influence of illness that they had taken on themselves to save mankind from a deadly pox.
“Baba basey gram Bakaley”

Guru Harkrishan ji is said to have these words to Darga Mal. Guru told Diwan that Sikhs will eventually find their true guru.
When Masands & Dheermal found it that next guru would be from Bakala, they set up their own Deras & claimed Gurship.
Dheermal was the biggest contender of all. He was uncle (Taya) of Guru Harikrishn ji & elder son of Baba Gurditta ji making Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib his Taya ji.

Mata Nanki called in 3 Sikhs to sort the gurship row.
1. Bhai Ghadeiya ji from Amritsar.
2. Dwarka Das from Goindwal
3. Grandson of Baba Budda Ji~ Baba Gurdita ji.

In addition to these Diwan Darga Mal travelled from Delhi to Bakala with message & necessary scriptures handed over by Guru Harkrishan Ji.

These Sikhs met Guru Tegh Bahadur & Gurship Tilak was given by heir of Baba Buda ji (custom)
However Guru Sahib told Sikhs to conceal the event & whosoever would reveal it will have his face blackened.

The Masands meanwhile fought daily & engaged in defaming each other & Guru Tegh Bahadur. They called Guru as ‘Tegha Kamla’
Bhai Makhan Shah, a devout Sikh of Guru was stuck at sea in a storm. He was aware of developments around guru Harkrishan ji & wanted to meet the next guru but like everyone he too didn’t know who it was. And the chances of him getting out of storm were negligible.
It was then that he did an ardaas to Guru Nanak.
“Ikagar chit kar jap ko padha
pun satguru ka kiyo dhyaan”

He vowed to give coins worth 5 lacs (in today’s worth) as daswandh to Guru If he could come out alive with his ship & crew.

On that fateful night, Makhan Shah’s
Ship survived. Makhan Shah travelled to Bakala with his 500 soldiers & riches. Upon knowing that a rich man was in Bakala, all the pakhandi masands flocked around him. He met everyone & gave 2 gold coins to each. He was tired by the end of day 2 of his search & had not found Guru
He refused to doubt Guru Harkrishan’s word that Guru is in Bakala & kept looking. It was then that he was left to meet Guru Tegh Bahadur. Masands advised him to not go there, however he went with his 500 soldiers & horses. Upon his arrival Bhai Gadheiya told him that if he wishes
to see Guru, he should come bare footed without any of his pomp & show. He was happy that this could be the Guru cuz everyone else wanted things from him but not him.

He went in, bowed down to Guru & kept two gold coins at Guru’s feet.

Guru Sahib smiled & said.
“Sikha dhubdi Naav tum
Hum deeni kandey lagaye
Kandey ghari mohey lagey kyu raakho dhan churaaye”

Makhan Shah kept all coins at Gurus feet & ran out elated on his discovery of Guru shouting
“Guru Ladho re, Guru Ladho re”
Read in continuation of Thread on Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib.

Makhan Shah got on to the top of the house and waving a cloth he Shouted aloud, "I've found the Guru! I've found the Guru!!" So, in this novel fashion the identity of Guru Tegh Bahadur ji was disclosed by Makhan Shah.
Soon afterwards an investiture ceremony was conducted, where Bhai Gurditta (a descendant of Baba Budha Jee) presented Guru Tegh Bahadur ji with a coconut and five paisas*. This was the customary way of Investiture in the House of Guru Nanak.
The people were so much overjoyed that they wanted their Guru to be taken out in a procession so that everyone could have his Darshan. This was accordingly arranged. Dhirmal could not bear this out of jealousy and had one of his agents named Shihan fire a bullet aiming at
Guru Tegh Bahadur ji. The bullet passed close to the Guru's forehead. There was a slight bleeding. At this incidence the Great Guru calmly remarked that "a Tilak of blood was the most appropriate for Tegh Bahadur." Of course, no one understood what the Guru had meant, but looking
at the incidence from hindsight, we know that the Guru was referring to His unique and supreme sacrifice at Delhi, which was yet to come.

"My Father Guru set out for the East;
and visited various places of pilgrimage."
(Bachittar Natak Guru Gobind Singh ji)
Soon after His investiture, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji decided to visit Amritsar along with His followers. Amritsar for the Sikhs is what Vatican or Jerusalem is for the Christians, or Mecca for the Muslims. Moreover, Amritsar was also the birthplace and the ancestral Home of the
Great Guru. On reaching Amritsar the Guru's party went straight to the Golden Temple. A Temple whose construction was started by Guru Tegh Bahadur ji's great-grandfather, Guru Ramdas ji, and which was completed by his grandfather, Guru Arjan Dev ji. Opposite this was the Akal
Takhat where His great Father, Guru Hargobind ji used to sit majestically on a dias with His two swords of "Miri" and "Piri" glittering on either side of Him.
On reaching the precincts of the Golden Temple, the party found that the doors were suddenly shut and they were refused
admittance. The reason was that the greedy "masands" (bishops) of Amritsar had acknowledged Guru Arjan Dev ji's elder brother Prithi Chand to be their guru. It was under the instructions of Harji, the impostor (Mina) guru of that time, that the doors of the Golden Temple were
closed to Guru Tegh Bahadur ji. The Guru waited nearby for a little while. This place is now known as "Thara Sahib" But when the doors were not opened, Guru ji went away and stayed in a nearby village of ‘Wala’in the humble dwelling of a peasant couple.
Later, the women of Amritsar came out and repented for the shameful behaviour of the masands of Amritsar. Highly pleased at the sincere devotion and courage of the women of Amritsar, Guru Tegh Bahadur ji said, "Ever blessed by God be the women of Amritsar."

Maayiaâ rab rajayiaâ
I’m skipping Guru Sahib’s travels to
Prayag (Allahabad)
Kamarup (Assam)
Jagannath Puri & jumping to Shahadat for keeping the already so long Thread a little short.
According to Dr. Trilochan Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib reached Anandpur Sahib in February 1672 A.D. & His family either accompanied Him from Patna, or joined Him soon afterwards. Guru Tegh Bahadur ji met for the first time His only Son Gobind Rai, when He was already 4-5yr old
Aurangzeb, the King of Delhi had come to throne by imprisoning his father Shah Jehan, &by killing all his 3brothers Dara Shikoh, Murad &Shujah by deceit
He wasn’t liked by Muslims initially, so in order to win hearts He shipped the wealth of India to Mecca & Medina to win hearts
In short, Aurangzeb became a Muslim fanatic for he thought it politically expedient to be so, otherwise in the words of Guru Gobind Singh ji, he was neither true to Mohammed nor to Allah (God).
Every policy that was implemented at Delhi, was certain to be designed against the interests of Hindus. In the words of Dr. Trilochan Singh, "Although Aurangzeb had a lot of Hindu blood in him, he hated the Hindus everywhere, except in the army where the might of the Rajput
warriors was indispensable, & in the harem where the beauty and loyalty of the Hindu princesses enchanted even his puritan and ascetic mind to the point of romantic madness. His principal queen, Nawab Bai, the mother of his successor, Bahadur Shah, was a Hindu princess of Kashmir
So also was his favourite Hira Bai, with whom he fell head over heels in love, before he became the Emperor."
It was dark age for Indian Hindus. The privileges of riding a horse; flying a flag; growing a moustache, chewing a bectle leaf or tying a turban were reserved only for the muslim members of the Indian society.
Aurangzeb had started a campaign of converting Hindus to Islam en masse, with the ultimate objective of converting Dar-al-Harb (land of infidelity) into Dar-Al-Islam (land of faith). He had been advised by the Qazis to convert the Brahman priests into Islam.
Anyone, who did not wish to embrace Islam, had to pay a tax called Jazia. Another instrument of the policy of putting economic pressure on "non-believers" was the granting of rewards to the converts, and the offering of posts in the public service. Trilok singh writes.
Aurangzeb destroyed many temples & taksilas that preached the Vedas.
The Brahmans Of Kashmir suffered a particularly bad blow at the hands of Governor Iftikhar Khan-a fanatic Muslim. It is said that he had tyrannised the Brahams to such an extent that he sent to the Emperor bundles of sacred threads of Brahmans.
It is popularly believed amongst the Hindus and the Sikhs that the Emperor converted so many Hindus every day that their sacred threads, forcibly removed on conversion, weighed a "Maund and a quarter'' (approximately 47kg).
Chaman Lal Gadoo writes that Kashmiri Pandits took a delegation to Amarnath & prayed to Lord Shiva continuously before they heard of Guru Tegh Bahadur by the traders who passed the Baltal mountain pass..
Read in continuation of Thread 2

A contingent of 500 Kashmiri Pandits led by Pandit Kirpa Ram & Trilok Nath Raina reached Anandpur Sahib. On reaching Anandpur Sahib a few of their leaders presented themselves before the Guru's court.
They were nine in number including Trilok Nath Raina of Raina-wari near Hari Parbat Kashmir.
Pandit Kirpa Ram told Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji their sorrowful tale. He told Guru ji how the Emperor was forcibly converting thousands of Brahmans every day.
A well known Singh Akali Kaur singh Nihung was the descendant of Pandit Trilok Raina, whereas Pandit Kripa Ram fought alongside Guru Gobind Singh ji later after becoming a Sikh.
Some of the descendants of the Kashmiri Pandits who were part of the 500 men contingent to visit Guru Sahib continued to serve Gurdwara Mattan Sahib Srinagar. They have migrated to parts of Jammu & Maharashtra after the Kashmiri Pandit exodus of 90s in Kashmir.
Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib, on hearing the sorrowful tale of the Brahmans, prescribed a unique prescription to put an end to the miseries of the Brahmans &the Hindus. He told that a holy man will have to sacrifice his life for the sake of Hindu religion.
Gobind Rai spoke & said
“O Gurudev, who is holier than you in this age of ignorance? They have come to seek protection at your feet. Therefore. you must protect them. even though in doing so you may have to sacrifice your life." The Guru was pleased with the reply of His Son.
Historian Trilok Singh writes that after this conversation, Guru Tegh Bahadur addressed the delegation as
Guru Tegh Bahadur had assured the Brahmans by saying: "We shall be the king after the rainy season." This time was spent by the Guru at Saifabad where the Muslim chief Nawab Saifuddin served the Guru with great reverence and received His blessings.
Guru Tegh Bahadur accompanied by five Sikhs Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Dyal Das, Bhai Sati Das, Bhai Gurditta and Bhai Uda, stayed in a garden in the outskirts of Agra. The Guru, decided to disclose His identity in a novel and undaunted manner
He sent a shepherd boy to the city to fetch some sweets for the party and gave him a diamond ring and a Kashmiri Shawl. The shepherd. on presenting the ring in exchange for the purchases, was suspected ill having stolen these items and was handed over to the police.
The police and military authorities at once knew that it must be Guru Tegh Bahadur as they had the information that He was coming to see the Emperor.
Since the Emperor had already left for Delhi, the authorities took charge of the party and they were escorted to Delhi under
a strong contingent of 1700 cavalry men.The shepherd boy received the Guru's blessings & the valuable items.
On arrival in Delhi the Guru was kept under house arrest. The house where the Guru was kept was believed to have been haunted and was commonly known as "Bhootan-di-Haveli"
Guru Tegh Bahadur held 3 meetings with the Emperor, Aurangzeb. During the course of the discussions and the arguments that ensued in these conferences. Aurangzeb tried to justify his actions to crush the infidels citing Islam & Quranic misinterpretations.
Guru in His reply told the Emperor of Delhi: "All men are created by God and therefore must be free to worship in any manner they like."

Great Guru Gobind Singh, has described this supreme act in His autobiography as follows:-
During the discussions which the Great Guru had with Aurangzeb, the Emperor told the Guru that it was his uttermost desire to see all Hindustan embrace Islam, and that it was with this intention that he had imposed Jazia on his non-muslim subjects; had ordered the demolition of
their temples and destruction of their scriptures (Vedas), and had ordered them to embrace Islam or face death. He requested the Guru to embrace Islam, for he knew that Guru Nanak's House was equally against idol worship. The Emperor was not unaware of the tenets of Sikhism.
The Guru told Aurangzeb, the Emperor, that he was committing these crimes and atrocities to satisfy his own selfish ends and that he was covering them up under the cloak of religion.
Why did not the uncle of the prophet Mohammed become a convert to the faith of Islam?
"You say your religion does not allow idol worship in any form. Then Where is the justification to enjoin the kind of worship to be offered to the black stone of Kaaba?"

Wheb Auranzeb challenged the bravery of Guru, Bhai Matidas reminded King of 4 defeats Mughals had from Sikhs
At the end of these discussions the Empero gave the Guru three options:
(i) To embrace Islam as His religion and receive the highest honours in his court. Or
(ii) To show Karamaat (miracles) which the Muslims regard as the fundamental characteristic of a true prophet; or
(iii) To accept death.

Guru Tegh Bahadur ji declined to embrace Islam or to show miracles but willingly accepted the third offer - that of death.

While Guru Sahib stayed at Delhi in prison, He was constantly writing to his son Gobind Rai & updating him on the fate of Hindustan
Guru Sahib wrote a Couplet to his son, the couplet goes thus:-

"All human power has failed,
Humanity groans in chains;
Moral efforts are of no avail;
Lord, save them O save
With Thy Merciful aid,
As Thou didst save
The drowning legendary elephant that prayed!"
Gobind Rai replied to his father in a couplet which goes like

"Power is secured, bondage is no more,
Every effort is crowned with success;
Everything is in Thy hands, Nanak,
Be Thou my refuge."
Guru Tegh Bahadur ji gave Bhai Gurditta five paisas and a coconut and bowed towards Anandpur Sahib. Thus crowning Gobind Rai to be the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. Bhai Gurditta Ji was sent because Gurship ceremonies were always presided by Baba Budda or his heirs.
Bhai Gurditta & Bhai Uda had left the prison. While Bhai Gurditta travelled to Anandpur, Bhai Uda stayed in Delhi to carry out post martyrdom ceremonies.
Next morning when 2 prisoners were found missing, the King asked for Guru to be produced in the court.
Over the next few days Guru Tegh Bahadur was made to watch the martyrdom of His beloved disciples. It was hoped by the Emperor that this might act as a deterrent, and so the Guru may decide to embrace Islam, after all.
Emperor passed order that Guru be beheaded at Chandni Chowk
Continuation of Thread

Next morning, a large crowd gathered at Chandni Chowk to see the unique sacrifice of a Pir, whom all Hindus acknowledged to be their spiritual leader. Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur took His bath in a nearby well and recited the holy hymns.
This well still exists and is situated near the back entrance to Gurdwara Sis Ganj. The Guru was then seated on a platform which had been erected for this occasion under a banyan tree, Qazi Abul Wahhab Borah then read the "fatwa." The executioner Jalaluddin of Samana stood nearby
The Guru requested Jalaluddin to strike the blow when He had finished the recitation of "Japji Sahib" (Sikh morning prayer) and when He bowed in reverence at the end. Accordingly, Jalaluddin struck the blow.
The holy head flew into the lap of Bhai Jaita, who was standing nearby. He moved away swiftly towards Anandpur Sahib as ordained by his Master.
The martyrdom is said to have taken place in the morning hours. The scholarly estimates are cemented by some proofs like this
The Emperor had it announced in the Capital that the headless body of the "Pir of the Hindus" lies in Chandni Chowk. "He who wishes to cremate it may come forward and do so." At the same time he imposed a heavy guard around that area so that no Sikh or Hindu may come near it.
In the afternoon Lakhi Shah - a Sikh of the "Vanjarah" tribe moved towards Chandni Chowk at a great speed along with his caravan of bullock carts. Lakhi Shah was an intimate devotee of Guru Tegh Bahadur ji.
He at once lifted the holy body and wrapped it under the bales of cotton that he was carrying. He then dashed towards his residence at Rakabganj. At Rakabganj, a whole locality of "Vanjarahs" lived.

Lakhi Shah reached there at about midnight.
He knew that he did not have much time at his disposal since the Imperial forces would soon be after him. So, he asked his family and neighbours to move out of their huts quickly. He then set fire to the whole village so that it appeared as if the whole place was on fire and not
as though one body was being cremated. Next morning Lakhi Shah had the ashes of Guru Tegh Bahadur ji put into two urns and buried at the same place where His body had been cremated. At this place now stands the historic shrine of Rakabganj Sahib.
The holy head of the Guru was carried to Anandpur Sahib via Ambala and Rupar.A whole procession of Sikhs led by Guru Gobind Rai came towards him. Bhai Jaita then kowtowed before the young Guru and presented before Him the holy head of His Father-Guru.
The Guru then embraced him and said: "Rangrete Guru ke Bete.”

Guru Gobind Rai then had a pyre of Sandal- wood prepared and after reciting the preamble to Japji Sahib and Sohilla* set fire to it.
It would be of interest to note that just as the two parts of the body of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur ji were cremated separately at two different places, so too were two graves constructed to commemorate the death of Aurangzeb - one at Ahmed Nagar and the other at Aurangabad.
The difference, however, is that while thousands pay homage at the shrines of Guru Tegh Bahadur every day, only dogs and owls acquaint the tombs of Aurangzeb.
"The Name remained, the Saints remained, and God remained.
Sayeth Nanak, in this world some rare one recited the mantra of the Guru."
(Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib)

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