Based on archeological evidence from Egypt and Palestine, the Exodus could not have happened as described. This is me still opening the door to the possiblity that it even happened because there are many experts and researchers that flat out say it did not happen.
I’m going to summarize 3 issues, 1 small, 2 major. The 1st is how long were the Hebrews “slaves” is Egypt? While the most common belief is that it was 400+ years, from the time the 18th Dynasty began enslaving people to the time of Ramses II is between 200-300.
At first glance this is a non-issue as the 400+ years could be symbolic, but it ties into the second issue. Ex. 12:37 mentions 600,000 Hebrew men (let’s assume women are included in this number for now) leaving Egypt besides children.
At the time of Ramesses II, archeological evidence shows am that at max Egypt could have sustained around 3 million people liveing in its borders. If around 20% of the working population disappeared there would be some evidence to show to that. There is none.
If women are not included in the mentioned 600,000 (let’s assume there were only 400,00 women), then 33% of the total Egyptian population leaves. There would be at least some evidence around Ramesses II’s time (the 19th dynasty) of this massive migration but there is none.
The economic strain this would do to Egypt would be devastating, but for the most part Egypt remains mostly unphased during this time and is able to continue its level of production until the end of the dynasty.
The 3rd and most damaging evidence is that because of Egyptian control of Palestine/Canaan in the 18th dynasty, the population of Palestine/Canaan had been so drastically reduced that at maximum only 70,000 people could have lived in the region.
If, at minimum, 600,000 people entered Palestine/Canaan during this time, there would be massive amounts evidence that a group 8.5x’s larger than the native population entering the region and wandering around Sinai for a minimum of 40 years.
Outside of that, if only 30,000 of the 600,000 men were of fighting age and capability, they could’ve easily outmatched any army that was placed in that region (Egyptian, Hittite, or Canaanite) regardless of technological disadvantage.
*Bonus 4 issue* Fast forward 200-300 years to the time of David and Solomon, the population of the the proposed borders for Israel were around 100,000 - 200,000(which is very generous based on archeological data).
Even if all the adults died in Sinai, the population of Israel would have rebounded back to the original number for a group that large have rebounded to a minimum 300,000, yet there is no evidence of any group close to that number in the region.
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