Salam. I am @TimorSharan, & it is my pleasure to take over the role of @AfghanHistorian for the next few days to tweet about the events leading up to the collapse of Dr. Najibullah’s government as we approach the anniversary of the Mujahedeen victory (TS)
I am an academic & a former public servant, currently working on a book on d emergence of a “network state” n post-2001 #Afghanistan. My PhD research was on network politics of international intervention&statebuilding,Exeter University. Profile photo is Dr. Najibullah & PDPA (TS)
What triggered the sudden collapse of Dr. Najibullah’s government? In Jan 1992, based on an assessment by Gen. Manokay Mangal, Dr. Najib orders the replacement & sacking of d following generals, doubting their loyalty: (TS)
Gen Juma Nazimi (Com. of 18 Division in Balkh) wt Gen. Rasool (Bekhuda)
Gen. Momin (Com. of 70 Brigade division in Hairatan) wt DW Sattar Basharmal
Gen. Hilal (Com. of Airforce in Balkh),2 relinquish his position
Gen. Ahmad Yar (Balkh Police Chief) 2 relinquish his position (TS)
In early Feb, Dr. Najib ordered Gen. Juma Atsak (Atchak), the 9th Army Corps Commander, to implement these changes.
Result: Breakdown of Central Command, which exacerbated the collapse. (TS)
Refusing Dr. Najib's order, Gen. Momin refused to relinquish charge and instead imprisoned DW Sattar Basharmal
Gen. Hilal relinquished his position but joined Gen. Momin
Gen. Ahmad Yar obeyed d order & reported in Kabul. (TS)
Reportedly, Gen. Momin and Hilal had already established contact with Gen. Dostum (Com. of 53 division wt 40,000 militias), A. Shah Masoud (Jamiat Commander), & Sayed Mansoor Nadery (Commander of 80th militia division). (TS)
They joined forces along wt Jihadi tanzim commanders (Alam Khan from Jamiat in Balkh, Hafiz Arbab in Faryab, Haji Mas’ab from Hizb-Islami, Wahdat, Harakat, SAZA affiliated soldiers) to surround Mazar. (TS)
In Kabul, d Politburo was divided on how to handle the crisis:
Pro-Najib network (Against Dostum & his allies Gen. Momin and Hilal)
Gen. Manokay Mangal
Gen. Watanjar
Raz Mohammad Pakteen (TS)
Pro-Karmal network (Pro reconciliation wt Dostum)
Gen. Asif Delawar (Chief of Staff)
Gen Azimi (Kabul Garrison)
Farid Mazdak ((Politburo (PB))
Mahmud Baryalai (brother of Karmal)
Najmuddin Akhgar Kawyani (PB)
Abdul Wakil (Foreign Affairs)
Reportedly Sulaiman Laeq (PB) (TS)
According to Gen. Azimi, he briefs the President on 18 Feb about d deteriorating situation in d north & advises him to reconcile with Dostum; recall Gen. Atsak to Kabul and give him an important role; &. send a delegation to North to negotiate with Gen. Dostum. (TS)
President Najib sent out Gen. Rafie 2 Sheberghan 2 discuss solutions. After 3 weeks of shuttle diplomacy, Rafie submits his report in early March (according 2 Azimi): Reportedly, Dostum demands 2 be appointed as Commanding General of North & Momin 2 continue in his position.(TS)
This infuriates Dr. Najib who dispatches Gen. Mangal along with a team of generals to mobilise troop forces against Momin and Dostum (see Yunas 2008). They bomb Sheberghan and Hairatan. The military campaign FAILS. (TS)
Mazar is surrounded by Dostum and his allies. On 12 March 1992, Dr. Najib sends Gen. Azimi to reconcile wt the trio- Gen. Dostum, Momin and Sayed Naderi. But it is TOO LATE. Mujahedeen commanders push ahead to capture d city. (TS)
According to Walwalj (2001)i, based on advice from Gen. Azimi, Dr. Najib allows Dostum militias to enter d city first - 18 March Mazar collapses. (TS)
With the collapse of the strategic city of Mazar, rapid disintegration of d state, breakdown of central command and party ranks as well as the UN 5-point peace plan forces Dr. Najib to announce his resignation.(TS)
President Najib’s resignation statement is broadcasted via radio & TV on 20 March, dated 18 March. He declares his departure after the “establishment of an Interim Govt in Kabul, all powers & all executive authority will be transferred to d Interim Govt…” (Yunas, 2008)(TS)
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