Gujarat's great king Siddharaj Jaysinh Solanki died in 1142 AD after 49 years rule.He had no son.His time was a golden era of Gujarat history.After death of Gujarat king Siddhraj Jaysinh, his cousin's grandson Kumarpal became Gujarat's 8th Solanki king as Jaysinh had no son.
As Kumarpal was descendant of Bhimdev 1st & his concubine Bakuladevi,king Siddharaj Jaysinh was against Kumarpal to become king after his death.Kumarpal was in exile & roaming one place to another in disguise because of fear of 12th century Gujarat king Siddharaj Jaysinh Solanki.
When Gujarat king Siddhraj Jaysinh died in 1142, throne heir Kumarpal was in Malwa in exile. He came to Patan & became Gujarat king after 30 days.Kumarpal Solanki became Gujarat king with help of Hemchandracharya, minister Udayan & Army Chief Krishndev who was his sister husband.
In 1142 AD Kumarpal Solanki became Gujarat king at age of 50 years. In the beginning, he faced much protest from courtiers but he suppressed rebels ruthlessly. King Kumarpal invaded Shakambhari. It Chauhan king Arnoraj made truce by marrying his daughter Jalhana with Kumarpal.
12th century Gujarat Solanki king Kumarpal invaded & defeated Shakambhari twice. In 1145 AD he defeated Ajmer Chauhan king in this invasion. Gujarat king Kumarpal dethroned Abu Parmar king Vikramsinh for his treachery. He made Vikramsinh's nephew Yoshodhaval Abu king.
12th century Shakambhari Chauhan king Arnoraj's son Vigrahraj/Visaldev was very brave. He freed Shakambhari from Gujarat's Solanki king's rule. He attacked Delhi & won Delhi.
In 12th century Gujarat Solanki king Kumarpal's army under command of Ambad invaded Konkan state Shilahar. Gujarat army won Shilahar and it's King Mallikarjun was killed by beheading.
In 1151 AD Gujarat king Kumarpal Solanki donated a village to Shiv temple of Chittorgarh in Rajasthan through his administrator Dandnayak Sajjan.12th century Gujarat Solanki king Kumarpal ruled over Gujarat, Abu, Marwad, Mewad, Sambhar, Ajmer, Malwa & north Konkan.
In 12th century Hemchandracharya wrote 'Trishashtishlakapurushcharit' & 'Yogshastra' containing 20 Vitragstuti at the request of King Kumarpal. Gujarat king Kumarpal visited Saurashtra pilgrimage places including Somnath twice with Hemchandracharya & 2nd time in Jain Sangh.
12th century Gujarat Solanki Rajput king Kumarpal abolished cruel law of 'Aputrikadhan' (sonless widow's wealth). By this law, sonless widow's wealth was forfeited after the death of a widow by the king.
12th century great Gujarat Solanki king Kumarpal died in 1172 AD at age of 81 years after the rule of 30 years. He had no son. So his nephew Ajaypal became Gujarat's 9th Solanki king.
151 years old photos of ruins of Jyotirlinga Somnath temple built by king Kumarpal in 1169 AD. It was ruined by the army of Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji (he never visited Gujarat in his lifetime) in 1300 AD. It was abolished to build the present new temple in place of it in 1950.
12th century Gujarat King Kumarpal was a follower of Shaivism but at age of 68 years, he adopted Jainism & became Shravak (disciple) of Jainism in 1160 AD. He imposed the ban on animal killing & liquor in Gujarat.Gujarati became vegetarian.He also continued his faith in Shaivism.
In 1155 AD devotee Bodana brought Ranchhodrai idol from Dwarka to Dakor. In 1162 AD Udepur-Malwa Rana Bhimsinhji renovated Dwaraka temple. In a ritual at Gomati river in Dwarka,he donated 7000 Vigha land to Gugali Brahmins of Dwarka.
861 years ago in 1159 AD tomb of Sufi Saint Abul Azam Abdullah Ibrahim was built at Bhadreshwar-Kutch in Gujarat. It still exists. In 1160 AD Saint Sheikh Ahmed Dehalvi alias Baba Dehalia died in Patan. He was buried near Saint Haji Haq's tomb. He came to Patan from Delhi in 1138
In 12th century Pralhadandev Parmar founded Pralhadanpur (now Palanpur) city. He was a subordinate ruler of Gujarat king Ajaypal Solanki. According to Jain Prabandhs, Gujarat king Ajaypal was a fanatic follower of Shaivism. So he had prejudice & intolerance to Jainism.
12th century Gujarat king Ajaypal Solanki ruled for 3 years from 1172 to 1175 AD. He was killed with a knife by Vayjaldev Pratihar/Padhiyar in 1175 AD. He had 2 queens Naikadevi & Karpurdevi and 2 sons Mulraj & Bhimdev. Mulraj became Gujarat 10th Solanki king in 1175 AD.
In 1175-76 AD Mulraj 2nd became 10th Solanki king of Gujarat after murder of king Ajaypal. He was son of queen Naikidevi, daughter of Goa king. In 1178 Gazani governor Shihabudin Muhammad invaded Gujarat. He was defeated & pushed back to Gazani by king Mulraj 2nd at Gadarghatt.
In 1178 AD Gujarat's 10th Solanki king Mulraj 2nd died at a very young age after 2 years rule. He was succeeded by his younger brother Bhimdev 2nd as Gujarat 11th Solanki king.
There are two Muslims' graves at Bhadreshwar-Kutch which bear dates of years 1174 AD and 1177 AD. These graves prove the presence of Muslims in big port city Bhadreshwar during Solanki rule. Graves may be of Arab traders.
In a copper plate donation deed of 1175 AD of the period of Gujarat king Ajaypal, Narmada Lat Mandal area & names its officials, Brahmins are mentioned. In 1175 AD Kumarsinh who was ex-minister of Gujarat king Kumarpal Solanki donated land to Kal Swamidev temple of Unjha.
In 1175 AD Mahamandaleshwar Vayajjaldev of Narmadatat Mandal of south Gujarat donated land on Narmada river bank to Brahmins for Brahmabhojan (feast to Brahmins).
As per 1177 AD Prakrit book 'Chandraprabhcharit' & Apbhransh book 'Neminathcharit', all coins of Gujarat Solanki kings were embossed with a picture of Goddess Lakshmi on them. Goddess Lakshmi is a form of wealth & prosperity.
In 989 AD copper donation plate of Ghumli's 1st known Jethwa king Bashkaldev gifted land to Bhardwaj Brahmin Damodar Ardhvaryu of Patan.Bhutambilika/Ghumli was capital city of 12th century Jethava dynasty Rajput state of west Saurashtra extended from today's Porbandar to Morbi.
12th century Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd founded Lilapur town from the name of his queen Liladevi who was a daughter of Jalore (Rajasthan) king Samantsinh Chauhan.
During 10 to 14 century Vasantotsav- Spring festival had been celebrated by Gujarat Solanki kings at Tripurushdev temple ground in Patan. In 1179 AD 'Draupadi Swayamvar' play written by poet Vijaypal was played at Vasantotsav (Spring festival) in Patan by order of king Bhimdev 2.
12 century Gujarat king Bhimdev 2nd built Bhimeshwardev temple & Lileshwardev temple in Lilapur town founded in name of his queen Liladevi. In 1183 fierce battle was fought between Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd & Delhi king Prithviraj Chauhan for beautiful daughter of Abu king
In 1197 AD Sultan of the Ghurid Sultanate & Delhi Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammed Ghori's army under command of Qutbu l-Din Aiybak attacked Gujarat. Army of Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd defeated Muhammad Ghori's army near Abu mountain & forced Qutbudin Aybak to go back to Ajmer.
12th century great Persian Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (R.H.) born in 1143 AD. He came to #Ajmer in 1192 AD & died here in 1235 AD.Delhi Sultan Iltutmish/Altamash built tomb of great Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti after his death in 1235. Emperor Humayun renovated it
In 12th century Gujarat Solanki kings' chief Arnoraj Solanki was brave Samant (lord) of Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd. He was ancestor of Gujarat's Vaghela kings.Son of Sardar Arnoraj was Lavanprasad Vaghela who was ruler of Dholaka. He was faithful chief of Gujarat king Bhimdev 2nd.
12th century Dholaka Vaghela ruler Lavanprasad founded Salakhanpur from name of his mother Salakhandevi. He built there Salakhaneshwar temple. Dholaka ruler Lavanprasad's son Vaghela Ranak Viram founded Ghusadi (Viramgam) & built Virameshwardev temple & Sumaleshwar temple.
12th century Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd appointed Somrajdev & after him Samantsinh as the administrator of Surashtra (Saurashtra). Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd built Meghdhwani or Meghnad Mandap (bower) in Somnath temple in Saurashtra.
In 12 century Malava Parmar king Subhatverma invaded Gujarat & advanced to Dabhoi & Khambhat but he was checked & pushed back by Lavanprasad. In 1210 Chaulukya Jayantsinh defeated Gujarat king Bhimdev 2nd & became Gujarat king.He ruled 15 years. In 1225 Bhimdev became king again.
In 1211 Malwa king Arjunverma invaded Gujarat & defeated Gujarat king Jayantsinh at Pavagadh. Arjunverma married Jayantisinhs daughter Jayshri. In 1232 Begum of Delhi Sultan Altamash went Hajj pilgrimage from Gujarat port. She was given royal services by Gujarat minister Vastupal
In 1232, 4 Marwad kings invaded Gujarat.They were defeated by Dholaka ruler brave Gujarat army chief Vaghela Lavanprasad & his son Virdhaval. In 1232 Devgiri's king Singhan invaded Gujarat. He crossed Tapi river. Gujarat army under Lavanprasad Vaghela fought with him near Bharuch
In 1242 AD Gujarat's 11th Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd died after 63 years rule. He ruled Gujarat,Abu,Mevad, Dungarpur & Banswada. Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd ruled for 63 years with help of brave army chief Dholaka ruler Lavanprasad Vaghela & Vanik ministers Vastupal & Tejpal.
In 1242 AD Gujarat's 12th & last Solanki king Tribhuvanpal became Gujarat king after the death of his father Bhimdev 2nd. He ruled only 2 years & died in 1244 AD. With his death, Gujarat's Solanki dynasty rule ended. Solanki kings ruled Gujarat for 302 years.
13th century Gujarat Solanki kings' chief minister Porvad Jain Vastupal was a great diplomat & one of most wise & clever administrators of Gujarat. Gujarat's chief minister Vastupal performed great services to Gujarat Solanki king Bhimdev 2nd & Dholaka ruler Virdhaval Vaghela.
13th century Gujarat king's chief minister Vastupal was a great philanthropist. He built many public works, buildings & temples all over Gujarat. Gujarat chief minister Vastupal served Jainism by building temples at Girnar, Shatrunjay, Abu,Patan,Bharuch,Khambhat,Dabhoi & Dholaka.
13th century Gujarat king's chief minister Vastupal built Jain temples, Shiv temples & Masjid. He built libraries at Patan, Bharuch & Khambhat. Gujarat king's chief minister Vastupal was a scholar & poet. He encouraged writers & poets & spent his time with them.
13th century Gujarat king's chief minister Vastupal wrote Stotras (hymns) of Adinath, Neminath & Ambika and epic poem 'Narnarayananand'. Gujarat king's chief minister Vastupal was known as 'Kavikunjar', 'Saraswatikanthabharan', 'Kurchalsaraswati' & 'Kavichakravarti'.
13th century Gujarat kings chief minister Vastupal's pen name as a poet was 'Vasantpal'.Balchandra wrote epic poem 'Vasantvilas' on him.Biography of 13th century Gujarat chief minister is given in ancient books-Kirtikaumudi,Sukrutsankirtan, Hammirmadmardan, Sukrutkirtikallolini
13 century Gujarat minister Vastupal built Jain temples of Rushabhdev,Parshwanath & Mahavir on Girnar.He put his family members statues in these temples.Vastupal built Jain temple complex known as 'Vastupal Vihar' on Mount Girnar at Junagadh. It was opened by Vijaysensuri in 1232
In 1232 AD Gujarat Kings' Jain chief minister Vastupal built Jain temples complex 'Vastupal Vihar' on Mount Girnar at Junagadh in the memory of his two wives Lalitadevi & Sokhuka.
13 century Gujarat kings' chief minister Vastupal built Jain temples at Abu, Girnar, Shatrunjay, Jalor, Taranga, Patan, Vijapur, Bharuch, Khambhat, Dabhoi, Dholaka. chief minister Vastupal conducted & organized many Jain Sangh-group religious tours of Jain pilgrimage places free.
13th century Gujarat kings' great chief minister Vastupal died on the way during pilgrimage tour of Shatrunjay Maha Tirth in 1240 AD. He had two wives & one son.
in 1211 AD Nuruddin Muhammed Ofi wrote about Gujarat's 1st communal riot between Muslim & Parsi at Khambhat in tme of Gujarat king Siddhraj. In 1211 AD Azizuddin Saiyad came Patan from Ghazni via Delhi & settled in Sami. He was in service of Gujarat king's administrator at Unjha.
In 1236 AD Muslim Saint Baba Arjunshah died at Petlad in Gujarat. His tomb is in Petlad. As per a stone inscription, a Muslim Mir Haji built a Masjid at Ashaval/Karnavati for a public purpose in 1238 AD.
In 1244 AD Visaldev Vaghela of Dholaka became Gujarat 1st Vaghela king at Patan on the death of Gujarat last 12th Solanki king Tribhuvanpal. Gujarat Vaghela kings were of another branch of Chaulukya/Solanki Rajputs. AS they were of Vyaghrapalli town, they are known as Vaghela.
In 13th century Vaghela Rajput branch of Solanki was known as Vyaghrapalliy from their town Vyaghrapalli.From 15th century they are known as Vaghela. In 13 century 5 Vaghela Rajput kings ruled Gujarat for 60 years from 1244 to 1304. Karnadev Vaghela was last Hindu king of Gujarat
In 1244 Visaldev became Gujarat's 1st Vaghela dynasty king. He was son of Virdhaval & grandson of Lavanprasad Vaghela who were Dholaka rulers. Gujarat king Visaldev Vaghela's chief minister was Tejpal who was brother of Vastupal.He died in 1248 & Nagad Nagar became chief minister
In 13th century Gujarat king Visaldev Vaghela defeated Malwa,Mewad & north Konkan kings. His titles were Abhinav Siddharaj, Apararjun & Rajnarayan. As per book 'Vaidyanath Prashasti' written by poet Someshwardev in 1255, king Visaldev Vaghela renovated Vaidyanath temple of Dabhoi
12th century Jain trader & shipping tycoon Jagadusha was one of richest person of Gujarat.He donated huge wealth for public & religious work. In 1256-1259 great famine occurred for 3 years in Gujarat in time of king Visaldev. Jain rich of Bhadresar Kutch Jagadusha helped people.
13th century Gujarat Vaghela king Visaldev was brave, religious, philanthropist & literature lover. He built Brahmapuris for Nagar Brahmins. Gujarat Vaghela king Visaldev encouraged literature activities. There were famous poets Someshwar, Nanak & Kamaladitya in his court.
13th century Gujarat Vaghela king Visaldev's queen was Nagaldevi. As he had no son, he made his nephew Arjundev Gujarat king & died in 1262 AD.Gujarat king Arjundev Vaghela was follower of Shaivism. In 1264 AD he granted permission to Nauvah Piroz to build Masjid at Somnath port.
In 13th century Nanak was a great scholar & poet of Gujarat. Biographies of Gujarat King Arjundev Vaghela were written in epic poems by poets Ashtavdhan Krishna & Ganpati Vyas.
13th century Saurashtra governor Samantsinh built Salakshanarayan temple in memory of his brother. He built Parshwanath Jain temple on Girnar. Saurashtra governor Samantsinh renovated Revatikund on way to Dwaraka & founded idols of Shiv, Vishnu, Ganesh, Kshetrapal & Surya there.
In 1275 AD Gujarat king Arjundev Vaghela died after 13 years rule. His son Ramdev became Gujarat's 3rd Vaghela king but he died after few months rule in same year. In 1275 AD his younger brother Sarangdev became Gujarat's 4th Vaghela king.
As per book 'Trpurantak Prashasti' written in 1287 AD & a Persian book, 13th century Gujarat king Sarangdev Vaghela defeated Malwa king Gogdev. Gujarat Vaghela king Sarangdev's Saurashtra Mahamandaleshwar (governor) Vijayanand attacked Ghumali ruler Bhan Jethava.
13th century Gujarat king Sarangdev Vaghela acquired titles of 'Narayanavatar','Laxmiswayamvar', 'Malavdharadhumketu','Abhinavsiddharaj', 'Bhujbalmalla'. Gujarat king Sarangdev renovated Somnath temple & made financial provision for maintenance of Jain temples of Abu & Khambhat.
Relation of Gujarat & Arabia is more than 3000 years old. There were Arab traders' settlements on sea coast of Gujarat in ancient time. In 1286 AD Haji Afifuddin Abukasim Ibn Ali Irji who was Arab trader having sea trade at Somnath & Mangrol built Maighalunchi Masjid at Junagadh.
In 1296 AD Gujarat king Sarangdev Vaghela died after a rule of 21 years. His nephew Karnadev became 5th Vaghela king of Gujarat. He was the last Hindu king of Gujarat. Chief ministers of late 13th century Gujarat Vaghela kings:Maldev, Kanha, Madhusudan, Vadhooy & Madhav
In 1290 Italian traveller Marco Polo narrated pirates of Gujarat as most courageous & brave pirates They kept their families in ships. In book 'Prashastisangrah' of 1300, cities Darbhvati-Dabhoi,Ashapalli-Ashval, Stambhtirth-Khambhat, Dhavalak-Dholaka, Vatpadra-Vadodara mentioned
In 1301 AD the idol of Surya (sun) deity was founded in Surya (sun) temple at Sutrapada town near Veraval port in Saurashtra province of Gujarat.
In 1300 AD Khwaja Achimuddin Jauhar who was a freed slave of Arab trader Husen Makki built multi-storied Masjid at Khambhat port of Gujarat. He built 3 shops for Masjid maintenance expenses. He made Wakf of these properties.
As per Somnath stone inscription preserved in Portugal Somnath priest Tripurantak built 5 Shiv temples & north arch gate in Somnath in 1287. In stone inscription of 1300 of Jami Masjid Mangrol 'welfare state of Gujarat king Karnadev at Patan' & 'Shri Surashtramandal' is written.
As per stone inscriptions of Ravechi Mata Rav Kutch of 1272 & Bhadresar Kutch of 1275,Kutchmandal was under rule of Gujarat Vaghela kings.Oldest Muslim inscriptions of India are at Pir Lal Shobah's tomb Bhadresar-Kutch Gujarat. They are of mid 12 century & in Arabic Kufic script.
Gujarat Rajputs' surnames in Sanskrit/Prakrit in ancient time: Chauhan-Chahman, Rathod-Rashtrakut, Chavada-Chapotkat, Solanki-Chaulukya, Padhiyar-Pratihar, Vaghela-Vyaghrapalliy, Jethava-Jyeshthuk, Gohil-Guhil.
Unjha is an ancient town. It was known as Umapur. It is mentioned in Puran as a pilgrimage in Hatkeshwar Kshetra. Vadnagar is an ancient city. It was known as Anandpur. In Skanda Purana,it is mentioned as a pilgrimage place in Hatkeshwar Kshetra.
In Solanki rule 10-13 century, Gujarat had foreign trade with Iran, Arabia,Afghanistan,Africa,Sri Lanka,Java & China from Bharuch,Khambhat,Mangrol & Bhadreswar ports.Bharuch & Khambhat were major ports of Gujarat.Cloth,leather,spices,colour,indigo,cotton,sugar,wax were exported.
IIn Solanki time 10-13th century, cloths of Bharuch & Khambhat were famous They were known as 'Baroji' & 'Kambayati' respectively. In 943 AD famous Arab traveller Al-Masudi wrote about famous leather shoes of Khambhat port city of Gujarat.
In an old Gujarati commentary book of 1337 AD on 'Ganitsar' book written by Shridharacharya, tables of weights & measurements are given. In 13 century daily earning/wage of common man was 5 Vinshopaks or monthly income was 1.5 Dram. Somnath temple priest salary was 15 Dram p.m.
13th century grain weight table:4 Paval=1 Pali;4 Pali=1 Manak;4 Manak=1 Seti;6 Seti=1 Hari;4 Hari=1 Mani;16 Seti=1 Kalashi;10 Kalashi=I Sudo. Ghee/oil weight table:13 Til=1 Tip;4 Tip=1 Lagar;4 Lagar=1 Pavali;2 Pavali=1 Adhol;2 Adhol=1 Karsh;4 Karsh=1 Pal; 4 Pal=1 Sohal.
13th century gold weight table: 8 Sarsav=1 Jav;2 Jav=1 Rati;3 Rati=1 Val;16 Val=1 Gadiyano & 10 Gadiyana=1 Pal. 13th century land measurement table: 6 Jav=1 Angul;24 Angul=1 Hast;4 Hast=1 Dand;2000 Dand=1 Kosh;4 Kosh= 1 Yojan.
13th century coin currency table: 20 Vatak/Kodi=1 Kakini;4 Kakini=1 Pan;16 Pan=1 Puran/Karshapan;20 Kodi=1 Vinshopak;5 Vinshopak=1 Lohak;4 Lohak=1 Rupak and 5 Rupak=1 Dram.
In 10-13th century during the Solanki age, barter system along with coin currency existed in Gujarat. A good horse could be bought by giving 2 Dron grain or 6 bulls or 100 blankets.
In 10-13th century transfer of property of immovable properties by sale/gift/donation/wakf were done by making deeds on copper plates/stone.In a 13 century stone inscription Wakf deed made by Hormuz Arab Nuruddin Piroz gifted 2 shops & oil mill to Masjid which he built in Somnath
In 10-13th century interest rate on loan/debt was 24% p.a. Interest was not compounded. Sometimes loans were secured by properties. In 10-13 century there was a practice of to hoist Kotidhwaj-flag on house of the rich person whose property/wealth was more than 1 Koti-10 million.
Ancient name of Gujarat cities: Dwarka-Kushsthali/Dwaravati, Mahuva-Madhumati, Junagadh-Girinagar/Jirnadurg, Bharuch-Bhugrukutch/Bharukutch, Khambhat-Stambhtirth, Ashval-Ashapalli/Karnavati, Dholaka-Dhavalak, Dabhoi-Darbhvati, Vadodara-Vatpadra, Navsari-Nagsarika, Porbandar-Puri.
In ancient time Porbandar was known by Sanskrit name 'Paurvelakul'.Velakul means port. It was also known as Sudamapuri or Puri in old time. In middle age, Muslims called it Puri Bandir. In Persian/Farsi language Bandir means port. Persian name Puri Bandir later became Porbandar.
In 10 century Solanki age Gujarat names:Gurjar Desh,Gurjar Bhoomi,Gurjar Mandal,Gurjartra,Gurjaratta & from 11th century Gujarat in Arabic."Gujarat" word first used in 11th century by Persian traveller Al Biruni in his book "Tarikh Ul Hind".It is Arabic form of word "Gurjaratra".
Prior to 10th century temples were built in Gujarat with bricks & wood. It began to built temples with stones from 11 century in Solanki rule.Temples built in Gujarat during Solanki dynasty rule 10-13 century are in Solanki style of Indian temple architecture with fine sculpture.
10/11 century temple of Nilkanth Mahadev at Soonak near Patan north Gujarat is complete & classic example of small size Solanki style temple.10-13th century Solanki style temples of Gujarat:Shiv temples of Soonak,Ruhavi,Virata,Gorad;Vishnu temples of Sander,Khandosan,Manand,Valam
10-13th century Solanki style Shakti Sect temples of Gujarat: Devi temple at Dhinoj, Limboji temple at Delmal, Shitalamata temple at Piludara, Khandeshwari temple at Kasangadh and Hinglaj temple at Khandosan.
Solanki age 10-13th century temples of Gujarat: Someshwar at Gorad, Dugdheshwar at Mandrapur, Ranchhodji at Valam, Chandramaulishwar at Kamboi, Akhada at Vasai, Brahma & Panchnath at Khedbrahma, Jasmalnathji at Asoda,Mata at Kanoda, Lakulish at Pavagadh & Munibava at Than.
Solanki age 10-13th century temples of Gujarat: Nilkanth at Miyani, Madhavrai at Madhavpur, Ram at Baradia, Shiv & Vishnu at Viramgam, Ranakdevi at Wadhwan, Surya temple at Prabhas-Patan, Jagannath & Achaleshwar at Abu and Panchayatan & Bhidbhanjan at Muldwarka (Visavada).
Solanki age 10th to 13th century temples of Gujarat: Tridev temple at Kasara, Tridev Parabadi & Tridev temples at Visavada.Grand 12th century Solanki-Malwa style Galateshwar Mahadev temple near Sarnal village in Thasara Taluka is on the confluence of Mahi & Galati rivers.
In 12th century in Solanki age, two grand Navalakha temples were built at cost of nine Lakh Drams each at Ghumali & Sejakpur in Saurashtra. As amount of 9 Lakh Dram was spent on construction of each temple, they became famous as Navlakha temple.Left Ghumli & right Sejakpur temple
In Solanki age 10-13th century Toran (arch gate) of temples were built at Vadnagar, Rudramal in Siddhpur, Surya temple in Modhera & Kapadvanj. In the same era, Mansar lake at Viramgam, Sahastraling at lake Patan, Karnasagar lake near Patan & Malav lake at Dholaka were built.
In Solanki era 10-13 century Vav (stepwell) were built at Ranini & Barot Vav at Patan, Madha Vav & Ganga Vav at Wadhwan, Bhadrakali Vav at Umreth & others in Vayad, Nadiad, Kapadvanj. In the same era, famous forts of Dabhoi, Zinzuvada, Uparkot of Junagadh & Pavagadh were built.
In Solanki period of 10-13th century, Jain temples at Abu mountain, Girnar mountain, Shtrunjay mountain, Taranga hill, Kumbharia, Patan, Khambhat and Bharuch were built.
In Solanki Raiput Hindu kings rule in Gujarat during 10-13th century, Masjids of Muslims were built at Patan, Bharuch, Khambhat, Asaval, Junagadh, Somnath, Mangrol & Bhadreshwar-Kutch cities of Gujarat.
In Solanki era 10-13th century Trinetreshwar Shiv temple at Than, Rukshmani temple at Dwarka, Shashibhushan & Rudreshwar temples of Prabhas were built. In 11th century construction of temples in Gujarat started as per principles given in architecture book 'Samrangansutradhar'.
In 12 & 13 century of Solanki era, temples were built in Gujarat as per principles of temple construction given in 12th century manuscript architecture book 'Aparajitpruchha'.
In 13th century manuscript book 'Lekhanpaddhati' a rare specimen of a legal document of divorce of a lady of a higher class family of Gujarat capital Patan is given.
In rock inscription of 1277 AD of Neminath Jain temple on mount Girnar Junagadh,'Unjha' city is mentioned as 'Uchchapuri'. In 1279 AD Jain religious manuscript books 'Kalpasutra' & 'Kaulak Katha' were written on palm leaves. In these books,pictures of Jain nuns & women are drawn.
Gujarat people of 12th century as per contemporary records: Abhir, Kirat, Dhivar, Chandal, Chin, Barbar, Jangal, Nishad, Bhil, Malechchh, Turushk, Yavan, Shak, Shabar, Hun, Takk, Mahey.Names of these communities changed now.
In 12th century Patola (costly Saree) weaver Salvi people came from Marwad & settled in capital Patan on the invitation of Gujarat king Kumarpal Solanki. In old book 'Varnak Samuchyay' of early middle age, list of 500 various types of cloth,clothes & garments of Gujarat is given.
In Solanki era (10-13th century) old manuscript book 'Varnak Samuchyay' description of 9 types of Gud ( jaggery),14 types of sugar & 7 types of Sakar (sugar candy) is given.
As per floor plan, parts of ancient Hindu temple architecture-Garbhgruh, Chhadya, Mandap, Bhamati, Alind, Antaral & Mukhmandap. Ancient Hindu temple parts as per vertical view-Pith, Mandovar, Shikhar, Bhadra, Stambh, Karna, Trirath, Panchrath & Pratirath.
Types of Hindu temples in ancient time-Ekayatan, Triyayatan, Panchayatan, Saptayatan, Chhadyashikhar, Shikharanvit, Valabhichhandaj, Sandhar, Prasad etc.
In 6th century in Maitrak time there was a big Sun temple "Jayaditya" at Kotipur near Jambusar in Kavika-Kavi Vibhag ( Taluka ).In 8th century Shivrudra Bhatt of village Devadi in Suvarnamanjari vibhag in Saurashtra built temples of Hari-Vishnu, Haridev-Surya & Vinayak
In 8 to 10 century Chavda kings built many Jain temples in Gujarat Vanraj Chavda built Panchasara Parshwanath Jain temple at Patan in 746 AD. In 769 AD Ninnay/Niy who was prime minister of king Vanraj Chavda built Rishabhdev Jain temple at capital Anhilvad Patan.
In Solanki age 10-13th century most of the literature in Gujarat was written by Brahmins & Jain monks in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apbhransh & Gorjjari. In the Solanki era of 10-13th century around 200 poets & writers created Sanskrit, Prakrit & Apbhransh literature in Gujarat.
Some famous writers of Solanki age during 10-13th century: Devsuri, Ratnaprabhsuri, Hemchandrasuri, Devbhadrasuri, Amarchandrasuri, Narchandrasuri, Udayprabhsuri, Dhanpal, Shripal, Vijaypal, Yashpal, Asad, King Kumarpal, Chandpal, Durlabhraj, Jagdev, Vagbhatt & minister Vastupal.
In 942 AD Digambar Jain monk Shreechandra wrote short story collection book 'Kahakosu' in Apbhransh. In 949 AD Chandragachchha Jain monk Jambumuni wrote 'Jinshatak' Stotra (hymn) containing Slokas about Jineshwar's feet, hand, mouth & speech.
In 10th century Brahmin Jain monk Acharya Shobhanmuni was a great scholar of Sanskrit & Jainism. He wrote 'Jinchatturvishatika'. Jain monks Pradyumansuri & Devguptasuri were famous Prakrut writers of 10th century. They wrote about Jainism & its philosophy.
11th century Pandit Uvvat of Vadnagar was a great scholar of Vedas. He wrote 'Shukla Yajurvedbhashya' & many books on Vedas. Pandit Vishnu of Anandnagar (Vadnagar) was a Sanskrit scholar. He wrote Sanskrit book 'Shankhyayan Padhdhati'.
11 century scholar & writer Jain monk Jineshwarsuri wrote books 'Panchlinga Prakaran', 'Shatsthan Prakaran', 'Haribhadriya Ashtakvruti' & 'Lilavatikaha'. In the same period, poet Soddhal who was a Kayasth of Bharuch wrote epic 'Udaysundari'.
In 1039 AD Jain monk Jinbhadrasuri alias Dhaneshwarmuni wrote large epic storybook 'Sursundari' containing 2500 stories in 16 sections.11th century poet & writer Jain monk Shantisuri wrote 'Shishyahita' commentary book on 'Uttaradhyayansutra' and 'Chaityavandan Mahabhashya'
11th century Patan Jain monk Shantisuri defeated 84 learned erudite in a debate at Malwa & won a prize of 12 lakhs which he spent to build Jain temple. Malwa king Raja Bhoj awarded the title of 'Vadvetal' to this learned Jain monk Shantisuri of Patan (Gujarat).